||Binding materials manufactured to be chemically neutral
||A rough or irregular edge on paper
||The lettering and decorating of covers
||Small brown spots that may appear over time on paper
|1/4, 1/2, full binding:
||The amount of material covering the spine onto the front and back boards determines the cover style. A cover consisting of the spine material carried a short distance onto the boards and a contrasting material completing the cover is called a 1/4 binding. Covering the corners with the spine material makes it a 1/2 binding. A full binding is a cover made of one piece of material.
||Repairing tears in paper with various materials including Japanese tissue.